Fundamentals of Flight

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Fundamentals of Flight presents information to plan and conduct common aviation tasks for fixed and rotary wing flight.

One of the underlying premises of aviation is if pilots understand ''why'' they will be better prepared to ''do'' when confronted with the unexpected.

Fundamentals of Flight endeavors to ensure that pilots understand the basic physics of flight, and the dynamics associated with fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

A comprehensive understanding of these principles will better prepare a pilot for flight, transition training, and day to day operations.

 

 

PREFACE ......................................................................................................................xiv

Chapter 1

THEORY OF FLIGHT
................................................................................................ 1-1
Section I Physical Laws and Principles of Airflow ................................................. 1-1
Newtons Laws of Motion ................................................................................... 1-1
Fluid Flow ........................................................................................................... 1-2
Vectors and Scalars ........................................................................................... 1-3
Section II Flight Mechanics ...................................................................................... 1-6
Airfoil Characteristics.......................................................................................... 1-6
Airflow and Reactions in the Rotor System........................................................ 1-8
Rotor Blade Angles........................................................................................... 1-11
Rotor Blade Actions.......................................................................................... 1-12
Helicopter Design and Control ......................................................................... 1-16
Section III In Flight Forces..................................................................................... 1-26
Total Aerodynamic Force ................................................................................. 1-26
Lift and Lift Equation......................................................................................... 1-26
Drag.................................................................................................................. 1-27
Centrifugal Force and Coning .......................................................................... 1-29
Torque Reaction and Antitorque Rotor (Tail Rotor) ......................................... 1-31
Balance of Forces............................................................................................. 1-32
Section IV Hovering ................................................................................................ 1-34
Airflow in Hovering Flight.................................................................................. 1-34
Ground Effect ................................................................................................... 1-34
Translating Tendency....................................................................................... 1-36
Section V Rotor in Translation............................................................................... 1-37
Airflow in Forward Flight................................................................................... 1-37
Translational Lift ............................................................................................... 1-41
Transverse Flow Effect..................................................................................... 1-42
Effective Translational Lift ................................................................................ 1-43
Autorotation ...................................................................................................... 1-44
Section VI  Maneuvering Flight...............................................................................1-51
Aerodynamics...................................................................................................1-51
Guidelines.........................................................................................................1-56
Section VII Performance.........................................................................................1-57
Factors Affecting Performance.........................................................................1-57
Section VIII Emergencies........................................................................................1-61
Settling with Power...........................................................................................1-61
Dynamic Rollover..............................................................................................1-63
Retreating Blade Stall.......................................................................................1-66
Ground Resonance...........................................................................................1-68
Compressibility Effects......................................................................................1-69

Chapter 2

WEIGHT, BALANCE, AND LOADS
.........................................................................2-1
Section I Weight.........................................................................................................2-1
Weight Definitions...............................................................................................2-1
Weight Versus Aircraft Performance..................................................................2-2
Section II Balance.......................................................................................................2-2
Center of Gravity.................................................................................................2-2
Lateral Balance...................................................................................................2-3
Balance Definitions.............................................................................................2-3
Principle of Moments..........................................................................................2-5
Section III Weight and Balance Calculations..........................................................2-5
Center of Gravity Computation...........................................................................2-6
Section IV Loads........................................................................................................2-8
Planning..............................................................................................................2-8
Internal Loads...................................................................................................2-10
External Loads..................................................................................................2-22
Hazardous Materials.........................................................................................2-25

Chapter 3

ROTARY WING ENVIRONMENTAL FLIGHT.....................................................3-1
Section I Cold Weather Operations.........................................................................3-1
Environmental Factors........................................................................................3-1
Flying Techniques...............................................................................................3-6
Taxiing and Takeoff............................................................................................3-6
Maintenance......................................................................................................3-10
Training.............................................................................................................3-12
Section II Desert Operations...................................................................................3-13
Environmental Factors......................................................................................3-13
Flying Techniques.............................................................................................3-17
Maintenance......................................................................................................3-19
Training.............................................................................................................3-21
Section III Jungle Operations.................................................................................3-22
Environmental Factors......................................................................................3-22
Flying Techniques.............................................................................................3-24
Maintenance......................................................................................................3-24
Training.............................................................................................................3-25
Section IV Mountain Operations............................................................................3-26
Environmental Factors.....................................................................................3-26
Flying Techniques............................................................................................3-34
Maintenance.....................................................................................................3-46
Training.............................................................................................................3-46
Section V Overwater Operations............................................................................3-48
Environmental Factors.....................................................................................3-48
Flying Techniques............................................................................................3-48
Maintenance.....................................................................................................3-49
Training.............................................................................................................3-49

Chapter 4

ROTARY-WING NIGHT FLIGHT...........................................................................4-1
Section I Night Vision................................................................................................4-1
Night Vision Capability........................................................................................4-1
Combat Visual Impairments...............................................................................4-1
Aircraft Design....................................................................................................4-2
Section II Hemispheric Illumination and Meteorological Conditions..................4-3
Light Sources......................................................................................................4-3
Other Considerations.........................................................................................4-4
Section III Terrain Interpretation............................................................................4-5
Visual Recognition Cues....................................................................................4-5
Factors................................................................................................................4-9
Other Considerations.......................................................................................4-12
Section IV Night Vision Sensors.............................................................................4-13
Electromagnetic Spectrum...............................................................................4-14
Night Vision Devices.........................................................................................4-16
Thermal Imaging Systems...............................................................................4-21
Operational Considerations..............................................................................4-22
Section V Night Operations....................................................................................4-28
Premission Planning.........................................................................................4-28
Night Flight Techniques....................................................................................4-30
Emergency and Safety Procedures..................................................................4-37

Chapter 5

ROTARY WING TERRAIN FLIGHT
......................................................................5-1
Section I Terrain Flight Operations.........................................................................5-1
Mission Planning and Preparation......................................................................5-1
Aviation Mission Planning System.....................................................................5-2
Terrain Flight Limitations....................................................................................5-2
Terrain Flight Modes...........................................................................................5-2
Selection of Terrain Flight Modes.......................................................................5-4
Pickup Zone/Landing Zone Selection................................................................5-4
Route Planning Considerations..........................................................................5-6
Map Selection and Preparation..........................................................................5-9
Charts, Photographs, and Objective Cards......................................................5-11
Route Planning Card Preparation....................................................................5-12
Hazards to Terrain Flight..................................................................................5-15
Terrain Flight Performance...............................................................................5-16
Section II Training....................................................................................................5-18
Command Responsibility..................................................................................5-18
Identification of Unit/Individual Needs...............................................................5-18
Training Considerations....................................................................................5-18
Training Safety..................................................................................................5-18

Chapter 6

MULTI-AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS.........................................................................6-1
Section I Formation Flight........................................................................................6-1
Formation Discipline...........................................................................................6-1
Crew Coordination..............................................................................................6-1
Crew Responsibilities..........................................................................................6-1
Considerations....................................................................................................6-3
Formation Breakup.............................................................................................6-9
Rendezvous and Join Up Procedures..............................................................6-13
Lost Visual Contact Procedures.......................................................................6-13
Communication During Formation Flight..........................................................6-14
Section II Formation Types.....................................................................................6-14
Two-Helicopter Team........................................................................................6-15
Fixed Formations..............................................................................................6-15
Maneuvering Formations..................................................................................6-19
Section III Basic Combat Maneuvers.....................................................................6-23
Maneuvering Flight Communications...............................................................6-24
Basic Combat Maneuvers.................................................................................6-24
Section IV Planning Considerations and Responsibilities....................................6-30
Planning Considerations...................................................................................6-30
Planning Responsibilities..................................................................................6-30
Section V Wake Turbulence....................................................................................6-32
In-Flight Hazard................................................................................................6-32
Ground Hazard.................................................................................................6-32
Vortex Generation.............................................................................................6-32
Induced Roll and Counter Control....................................................................6-33
Operational Problem Areas...............................................................................6-34
Vortex Avoidance Techniques..........................................................................6-34

Chapter 7

FIXED WING AERODYNAMICS AND PERFORMANCE...................................7-1
Section I Fixed Wing Stability..................................................................................7-1
Motion Sign Principles........................................................................................7-1
Static Stability......................................................................................................7-2
Dynamic Stability.................................................................................................7-3
Pitch Stability.......................................................................................................7-4
Lateral Stability..................................................................................................7-12
Cross Effects and Stability................................................................................7-14
Section II High Lift Devices....................................................................................7-17
Purpose.............................................................................................................7-17
Increasing the Coefficient of Lift........................................................................7-18
Types of High Lift Devices................................................................................7-21
Section III Stalls.......................................................................................................7-24
Aerodynamic Stall.............................................................................................7-25
Stall Warning and Stall Warning Devices.........................................................7-27
Stall Recovery..................................................................................................7-29
Spins.................................................................................................................7-29
Section IV Maneuvering Flight..............................................................................7-31
Climbing Flight..................................................................................................7-31
Angle of Climb..................................................................................................7-33
Rate of Climb....................................................................................................7-35
Aircraft Performance in a Climb or Dive...........................................................7-35
Turns.................................................................................................................7-37
Slow Flight........................................................................................................7-39
Descents...........................................................................................................7-42
Section V Takeoff and Landing Performance.......................................................7-44
Procedures and Techniques............................................................................7-44
Takeoff..............................................................................................................7-44
Section VI Flight Control........................................................................................7-49
Development....................................................................................................7-49
Control Surface and Operation Theory............................................................7-49
Longitudinal Control..........................................................................................7-51
Directional Control............................................................................................7-53
Lateral Control..................................................................................................7-54
Control Forces..................................................................................................7-54
Control Systems...............................................................................................7-57
Propellers.........................................................................................................7-59
Section VII Multiengine Operations......................................................................7-61
Twin-Engine Aircraft Performance...................................................................7-61
Asymmetric Thrust............................................................................................7-62
Critical Engine..................................................................................................7-62
Minimum Single Engine Control Speed...........................................................7-63
Single Engine Climbs.......................................................................................7-65
Single Engine Level Flight................................................................................7-67
Single Engine Descents...................................................................................7-68
Single Engine Approach and Landing..............................................................7-68
Propeller Feathering.........................................................................................7-68
Accelerate Stop Distance.................................................................................7-69
Accelerate Go Distance...................................................................................7-70

Chapter 8

FIXED WING ENVIRONMENTAL FLIGHT.........................................................8-1
Section I Cold Weather/Icing Operations................................................................8-1
Environmental Factors.......................................................................................8-1
Aircraft Equipment..............................................................................................8-8
Flying Techniques............................................................................................8-11
Training.............................................................................................................8-16
Section II Mountain Operations.............................................................................8-17
Environmental Factors.....................................................................................8-17
Flying Techniques............................................................................................8-18
Section III  Overwater Operations..........................................................................8-18
GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................... Glossary-1
REFERENCES..............................................................................................References-1
Oceanographic Terminology.............................................................................8-18
Ditching.............................................................................................................8-19
Section IV Thunderstorm Operations....................................................................8-23
Environmental Factors......................................................................................8-24
Flying Techniques.............................................................................................8-25
Training.............................................................................................................8-27

Chapter 9

FIXED WING NIGHT FLIGHT................................................................................9-1
Section I Preparation and Preflight.........................................................................9-1
Equipment...........................................................................................................9-1
Lighting................................................................................................................9-1
Parking Ramp Check..........................................................................................9-2
Preflight...............................................................................................................9-2
Section II Taxi, Takeoff, and Departure Climb......................................................9-3
Taxi.....................................................................................................................9-3
Takeoff and Climb...............................................................................................9-3
Section III Orientation and Navigation...................................................................9-4
Visibility...............................................................................................................9-5
Maneuvers..........................................................................................................9-5
Disorientation and Reorientation........................................................................9-5
Cross Country Flights.........................................................................................9-5
Overwater Flights................................................................................................9-5
Illusions...............................................................................................................9-5
Section IV Approaches and Landings......................................................................9-5
Distance..............................................................................................................9-5
Airspeed..............................................................................................................9-6
Depth Perception................................................................................................9-6
Approaching Airports..........................................................................................9-6
Entering Traffic....................................................................................................9-6
Final Approach....................................................................................................9-6
Executing Roundout............................................................................................9-7
Section V Night Emergencies....................................................................................9-9
INDEX...................................................................................................................Index-1 

 

Figure 1-1. Water flow through a tube............................................................................. 12
Figure 1-2. Venturi effect................................................................................................. 12
Figure 1-3. Venturi flow ................................................................................................... 13
Figure 1-4. Resultant by parallelogram method.............................................................. 1-4
Figure 1-5. Resultant by the polygon method ................................................................. 15
Figure 1-6. Resultant by the triangulation method .......................................................... 15
Figure 1-7. Force vectors on an airfoil segment.............................................................. 16
Figure 1-8. Force vectors on aircraft in flight................................................................... 16
Figure 1-9. Symmetrical airfoil section ............................................................................ 18
Figure 1-10. Nonsymmetrical (cambered) airfoil section ................................................ 18
Figure 1-11. Relative wind............................................................................................... 19
Figure 1-12. Rotational relative wind............................................................................... 19
Figure 1-13. Induced flow (downwash) ......................................................................... 110
Figure 1-14. Resultant relative wind.............................................................................. 110
Figure 1-15. Angle of incidence and angle of attack..................................................... 1-11
Figure 1-16. Blade rotation and blade speed ................................................................ 112
Figure 1-17. Feathering................................................................................................. 112
Figure 1-18. Flapping in directional flight ...................................................................... 113
Figure 1-19. Flapping (advancing blade 3 o'clock position).......................................... 1-14
Figure 1-20. Flapping (retreating blade 9 o'clock position)........................................... 1-14
Figure 1-21. Flapping (blade over the aircraft nose)..................................................... 1-14
Figure 1-22. Flapping (blade over the aircraft tail) ........................................................ 114
Figure 1-23. Lead and lag ............................................................................................. 115
Figure 1-24. Under slung design of semirigid rotor system .......................................... 116
Figure 1-25. Gyroscopic precession ............................................................................. 117
Figure 1-26. Rotor head control systems ...................................................................... 118
Figure 1-27. Stationary and rotating swashplates tilted by cyclic control ..................... 118
Figure 1-28. Stationary and rotating swashplates tilted in relation to mast .................. 119
Figure 1-29. Pitch-change arm rate of movement over 90 degrees of travel ............... 119
Figure 1-30. Rotor flapping in response to cyclic input ................................................. 120
Figure 1-31. Cyclic feathering ....................................................................................... 121
Figure 1-32. Input servo and pitch-change horn offset ................................................. 122
Figure 1-33. Cyclic pitch variation full forward, low pitch ............................................. 123
Figure 1-34. Fully articulated rotor system.................................................................... 124
Figure 1-35. Semirigid rotor system .............................................................................. 124
Figure 1-36. Effect of tail-low attitude on lateral hover attitude..................................... 1-25
Figure 1-37. Cyclic control response around the lateral and longitudinal axes ............ 126
Figure 1-38. Total aerodynamic force ........................................................................... 126
Figure 1-39. Forces acting on an airfoil......................................................................... 127
Figure 1-40. Drag and airspeed relationship................................................................. 128
Figure 1-41. Effects of centrifugal force and lift............................................................. 1-30
Figure 1-43. Torque reaction .........................................................................................131
Figure 1-44. Balanced forces; hovering with no wind....................................................1-32
Figure 1-45. Unbalanced forces causing acceleration ..................................................1-33
Figure 1-46. Balanced forces; steady-state flight ..........................................................133
Figure 1-47. Unbalanced forces causing deceleration..................................................1-33
Figure 1-48. Airflow in hovering flight ............................................................................134
Figure 1-49. In ground effect hover ...............................................................................135
Figure 1-50. Out of ground effect hover.........................................................................1-36
Figure 1-51. Translating tendency.................................................................................1-37
Figure 1-52. Differential velocities on the rotor system caused by forward airspeed....1-38
Figure 1-53. Blade areas in forward flight......................................................................1-39
Figure 1-54. Flapping (advancing blade, 3 o'clock position).........................................1-40
Figure 1-55. Flapping (retreating blade, 9 o'clock position) ..........................................1-40
Figure 1-56. Blade pitch angles.....................................................................................1-41
Figure 1-57. Translational lift (1 to 5 knots)...................................................................1-42
Figure 1-58. Translational lift (10 to 15 knots)...............................................................1-42
Figure 1-59. Transverse flow effect ...............................................................................143
Figure 1-60. Effective translational lift............................................................................1-43
Figure 1-61. Blade regions in vertical autorotation descent ..........................................1-44
Figure 1-62. Force vectors in vertical autorotative descent...........................................1-46
Figure 1-63. Autorotative regions in forward flight.........................................................1-47
Figure 1-64. Force vectors in level-powered flight at high speed..................................1-47
Figure 1-65. Force vectors after power loss reduced collective...................................1-48
Figure 1-66. Force vectors in autorotative steady-state descent ..................................1-48
Figure 1-67. Autorotative deceleration...........................................................................1-49
Figure 1-68. Drag and airspeed relationship .................................................................150
Figure 1-69. Counterclockwise blade rotation ...............................................................151
Figure 1-70. Lift to weight ..............................................................................................154
Figure 1-71. Aft cyclic results.........................................................................................1-55
Figure 1-72. Density altitude computation.....................................................................1-59
Figure 1-73. Induced flow velocity during hovering flight...............................................1-61
Figure 1-74. Induced flow velocity before vortex ring state...........................................1-61
Figure 1-75. Vortex ring state ........................................................................................161
Figure 1-76. Settling with power region.........................................................................1-63
Figure 1-77. Downslope rolling motion..........................................................................1-65
Figure 1-78. Upslope rolling motion...............................................................................1-65
Figure 1-79. Retreating blade stall (normal hovering lift pattern) ..................................1-67
Figure 1-80. Retreating blade stall (normal cruise lift pattern).......................................1-67
Figure 1-81. Retreating blade stall (lift pattern at critical airspeed retreating blade stall).........1-68
Figure 1-82. Ground resonance.....................................1-69
Figure 1-83. Compressible and incompressible flow comparison........................1-71
Figure 1-84. Normal shock wave formation...............................................1-72
Figure 2-1. Helicopter station diagram ............................................................................ 24
Figure 2-2. Aircraft balance point .................................................................................... 25
Figure 2-3. Locating aircraft center of gravity.................................................................. 26
Figure 2-4. Fuel moments ............................................................................................... 27
Figure 2-5. Center of gravity limits chart ......................................................................... 28
Figure 2-6. Weight spreading effect of shoring............................................................. 2-11
Figure 2-7. Load contact pressure ................................................................................ 212
Figure 2-8. Formulas for load pressure calculations..................................................... 2-13
Figure 2-9. Determining general cargo center of gravity............................................... 214
Figure 2-10. Determining center of gravity of wheeled vehicle ..................................... 215
Figure 2-11. Compartment method steps ..................................................................... 216
Figure 2-12. Station method steps ................................................................................ 217
Figure 2-13. Effectiveness of tie-down devices............................................................. 219
Figure 2-14. Calculating tie down requirements ........................................................... 221
Figure 3-1. Weather conditions conducive to icing ......................................................... 33
Figure 3-2. Ambient light conditions................................................................................ 35
Figure 3-3. Depth perception........................................................................................... 39
Figure 3-4. Desert areas of the world............................................................................ 314
Figure 3-5. Sandy desert terrain.................................................................................... 315
Figure 3-6. Rocky plateau desert terrain....................................................................... 316
Figure 3-7. Mountain desert terrain............................................................................... 316
Figure 3-8. Jungle areas of the world............................................................................ 322
Figure 3-9. Types of wind.............................................................................................. 327
Figure 3-10. Light wind.................................................................................................. 328
Figure 3-11. Moderate wind .......................................................................................... 328
Figure 3-12. Strong wind ............................................................................................... 329
Figure 3-13. Mountain (standing) wave......................................................................... 329
Figure 3-14. Cloud formations associated with mountain wave.................................... 330
Figure 3-15. Rotor streaming turbulence ...................................................................... 331
Figure 3-16. Wind across a ridge .................................................................................. 332
Figure 3-17. Snake ridge............................................................................................... 332
Figure 3-18. Wind across a crown................................................................................. 333
Figure 3-19. Shoulder wind ........................................................................................... 333
Figure 3-20. Wind across a canyon............................................................................... 334
Figure 3-21. Mountain takeoff ....................................................................................... 335
Figure 3-22. High reconnaissance flight patterns.......................................................... 337
Figure 3-23. Computing wind direction between two points ......................................... 338
Figure 3-24. Computing wind direction using the circle maneuver ............................... 339
Figure 3-25. Approach paths and areas to avoid.......................................................... 3-40
Figure 3-26. Nap of the earth or contour takeoff (terrain flight).................................... 3-42
Figure 3-27. Ridge crossing at a 45-degree angle (terrain flight) ................................. 344
Figure 3-28. Steep turns or climbs at terrain flight altitudes.......................................... 344
Figure 3-29. Flight along a valley (terrain flight)............................................................ 345
Figure 3-30. Nap of the earth or contour approach (terrain flight)................................ 3-46
Figure 4-1. Identification by object size ...........................................................................46
Figure 4-2. Identification by object shape........................................................................4-7
Figure 4-3. Identification by object contrast.....................................................................4-8
Figure 4-4. Identification by object viewing distance .......................................................49
Figure 4-5. Electromagnetic Spectrum..........................................................................4-14
Figure 4-6. IR energy.....................................................................................................4-15
Figure 4-7. Image intensifier..........................................................................................4-16
Figure 4-8. AN/AVS-6 in operational position................................................................4-17
Figure 4-9. Pilotage system...........................................................................................4-21
Figure 4-10. Target acquisition system..........................................................................4-22
Figure 4-11. Atmospheric effects on IR radiation ..........................................................424
Figure 4-12. Infrared energy crossover .........................................................................425
Figure 4-13. Parallax effect............................................................................................4-26
Figure 4-14. Night visual meteorological conditions takeoff..........................................4-32
Figure 4-15. Approach to a lighted inverted Y...............................................................4-34
Figure 4-16. Approach to a lighted T.............................................................................4-36
Figure 5-1. Modes of flight...............................................................................................5-3
Figure 5-2. Route planning map symbols......................................................................5-10
Figure 5-3. Sample joint operations graphic map preparation .....................................5-11
Figure 5-4. Example of an en route card.......................................................................5-13
Figure 5-5. Example of an objective card......................................................................5-14
Figure 6-1. Horizontal distance........................................................................................6-5
Figure 6-2. Stepped-up vertical separation......................................................................6-6
Figure 6-3. Echelon formation before breakup................................................................6-9
Figure 6-4. Left break with 10-second interval for landing.............................................6-10
Figure 6-5. Breakup into two elements..........................................................................6-11
Figure 6-6. Formation breakup inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions ......6-12
Figure 6-7. Two-helicopter section/element...................................................................6-15
Figure 6-8. Staggered right and left formation...............................................................6-16
Figure 6-9. Echelon right and left formation...................................................................6-17
Figure 6-10. Trail formation............................................................................................618
Figure 6-11. V formation................................................................................................6-19
Figure 6-12. Team combat cruise.................................................................................6-20
Figure 6-13. Flight combat cruise ..................................................................................620
Figure 6-14. Combat cruise right ...................................................................................6-21
Figure 6-15. Combat cruise left......................................................................................622
Figure 6-16. Combat trail...............................................................................................6-23
Figure 6-17. Combat spread..........................................................................................6-23
Figure 6-18. Basic combat maneuver circle ..................................................................624
Figure 6-19. Tactical turn away......................................................................................625
Figure 6-20. Tactical turn to...........................................................................................6-26
Figure 6-21. Dig and pinch maneuvers..........................................................................6-26
Figure 6-22. Split turn maneuver ...................................................................................627
Figure 6-23. In place turn...............................................................................................6-27
Figure 6-24. Cross turn in or out ................................................................................... 628
Figure 6-25. Cross turn cover (high/low)....................................................................... 628
Figure 6-26. Break turn left/right.................................................................................... 629
Figure 6-27. Break turn left/right (high/low)................................................................... 629
Figure 6-28. Shackle turn .............................................................................................. 630
Figure 6-29. Wake vortex generation............................................................................ 633
Figure 7-1. Stability nomenclature................................................................................... 71
Figure 7-2. Nonoscillatory motion.................................................................................... 72
Figure 7-3. Oscillatory motion ......................................................................................... 74
Figure 7-4. CM versus CL ................................................................................................. 75
Figure 7-5. Fixed wing aircraft center of gravity and aerodynamic center...................... 7-6
Figure 7-6. Wing contribution to longitudinal stability...................................................... 76
Figure 7-7. Negative pitching moment about the aerodynamic center of a positive
cambered airfoil ........................................................................................... 7-7
Figure 7-8. Positive longitudinal stability of a positive-cambered airfoil.......................... 7-7
Figure 7-9. Negative longitudinal stability of a positive-cambered airfoil ........................ 78
Figure 7-10. Lift as a stabilizing moment to the horizontal stabilizer .............................. 79
Figure 7-11. Thrust axis about center of gravity.............................................................. 79
Figure 7-12. Positive sideslip angle............................................................................... 710
Figure 7-13. Directional stability ............... ............................................................. 711
Figure 7-14. Dorsal fin decreases drag......................................................................... 711
Figure 7-15. Fixed-wing aircraft configuration positive yawing moment ....................... 712
Figure 7-16. Horizontal lift component produces sideslip ............................................. 713
Figure 7-17. Positive static lateral stability .................................................................... 713
Figure 7-18. Dihedral angle........................................................................................... 713
Figure 7-19. Dihedral stability........................................................................................ 714
Figure 7-20. Adverse yaw ............................................................................................. 715
Figure 7-21. Slipstream and yaw................................................................................... 717
Figure 7-22. Asymmetric loading (propeller-factor)....................................................... 717
Figure 7-23. Increasing camber with trailing-edge flap ................................................. 719
Figure 7-24. Suction boundary layer control................................................................. 7-20
Figure 7-25. Blowing boundary layer control ................................................................ 720
Figure 7-26. Vortex generators ..................................................................................... 721
Figure 7-27. Angle of incidence change with flap deflection......................................... 7-22
Figure 7-28. Types of high lift devices .......................................................................... 723
Figure 7-29. CLmax increase with slotted flap............................................................... 724
Figure 7-30. Coefficient of lift curve............................................................................... 725
Figure 7-31. Various airfoil angles of attack.................................................................. 726
Figure 7-32. Boundary layer separation........................................................................ 726
Figure 7-33. CL curves for cambered and symmetrical airfoils ..................................... 728
Figure 7-34. Stall strip ................................................................................................... 728
Figure 7-35. Flapper switch........................................................................................... 729
Figure 7-36. Spins ......................................................................................................... 730
Figure 7-37. Climb angle and rate................................................................................. 7-32
Figure 7-38. Force vector diagram for climbing flight....................................................7-33
Figure 7-39. Wind effect on maximum climb angle........................................................7-34
Figure 7-40. Full-power polar diagram...........................................................................7-36
Figure 7-41. Polar curve ................................................................................................737
Figure 7-42. Effect of turning flight.................................................................................7-38
Figure 7-43. Effect of load factor on stalling speed .......................................................740
Figure 7-44. Best glide speed........................................................................................7-44
Figure 7-45. Net accelerating force ...............................................................................745
Figure 7-46. Landing roll velocity...................................................................................7-48
Figure 7-47. Using flaps to increase camber.................................................................7-49
Figure 7-48. Operation of aileron in a turn.....................................................................7-50
Figure 7-49. Effect of elevator and rudder on moments................................................7-51
Figure 7-50. Effect of center of gravity location on longitudinal control.........................7-52
Figure 7-51. Adverse moments during takeoff...............................................................7-53
Figure 7-52. Hinge moment...........................................................................................7-54
Figure 7-53. Aerodynamic balancing using horns.........................................................7-55
Figure 7-54. Aerodynamic balancing using a balance board ........................................7-56
Figure 7-55. Aerodynamic balancing using a servo tab ................................................7-56
Figure 7-56. Spoiler used as control surface.................................................................7-58
Figure 7-57. Wing flap control........................................................................................7-58
Figure 7-58. Blade angle affected by revolutions per minute........................................7-60
Figure 7-59. Forces created during single engine operation.........................................7-63
Figure 7-60. Sideslip......................................................................................................7-65
Figure 7-61. One engine inoperative flight path ............................................................766
Figure 7-62. Windmilling propeller creating drag...........................................................7-68
Figure 7-63. Required takeoff runway lengths...............................................................7-70
Figure 7-64. Balanced field length.................................................................................7-71
Figure 8-1. Lift curve........................................................................................................8-3
Figure 8-2. Drag curve.....................................................................................................8-4
Figure 8-3. Tail stall pitchover..........................................................................................8-7
Figure 8-4. Pneumatic boots..........................................................................................8-10
Figure 8-5. Propeller ice control.....................................................................................8-11
Figure 8-6. Wind swell ditch heading.............................................................................8-20
Figure 8-7. Single swell..................................................................................................820
Figure 8-8. Double swell (15 knot wind) ........................................................................821
Figure 8-9. Double swell (30 knot wind) ........................................................................821
Figure 8-10. Swell (50 knot wind) ..................................................................................822
Figure 8-11. Effect of microburst....................................................................................825
Figure 9-1. Positive climb.................................................................................................94
Figure 9-2. Typical light pattern for airport identification..................................................9-6
Figure 9-3. Visual approach slope indicator ....................................................................97
Figure 9-4. Roundout (when tire marks are visible).........................................................9-8
Table 1-1. Airfoil terminology........................................................................................... 1-7
Table 1-2. Aircraft reaction to forces ............................................................................. 1-17
Table 1-3. Bank angle versus torque ............................................................................ 1-54
Table 1-4. Speed of sound variation with temperature and altitude.............................. 1-70
Table 2-1. Responsibilities .............................................................................................. 2-9
Table 2-2. Internal loading considerations .................................................................... 2-10
Table 2-3. Percentage restraint chart............................................................................ 2-20
Table 4-1. Position distance ............................................................................................ 4-2
Table 5-1. Mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available,
civil considerations and terrain flight modes................................ 5-4
Table 5-2. Pickup zone selection considerations............................................................ 5-5
Table 5-3. Pickup zone selection considerations............................................................ 5-5
Table 5-4. Route planning considerations....................................................................... 5-7
Table 5-5. Example of a navigation card....................................................................... 5-12
Table 6-1. Sample lighting conditions ............................................................................. 6-7
Table 8-1. Temperature ranges for ice formation............................................................ 8-2
Table 8-2. Oceanographic terminology ......................................................................... 8-19



Soft Cover, Spiral Bound - Fully Illustrated 384 Pages.